The geographical location of Ujjain is unique. Indian astro-sciences regard Ujjain as central reference point. Seminal authors from Varahamihira to Bhaskaracharya attribute it to several calculations including standard time.
Since ‘time’ in Sanskrit is called ‘kala’ . It is justified that there is a causal relationship between situation of Mahakal and the centrality of Ujjayini in the astro-sciences.
Hence, Lord Mahakal is considered to be the God of time.
The city has greater importance compared to other holy cities of India due to its unique geographical position for calculation of time.
It has always been an ideal place for calculation of time and calendar science and thus it is also known as ‘Greenwich of India’. This ancient ‘Greenwich’ city is situated 23.9 degree northern latitude and 74.75 degree eastern longitude at an altitude of 1658 ft. It is situated on Topic of Cancer and hence a big centre of calculation of time and this is the reason why it is also a main centre of astrology since ancient times.
There has been an impressive line of astronomers and astrologers here starting from the most celebrated of them. Varahamihira who is guiding light of India in these fields to our own times.
Recognising the unique situation of Ujjain, King Jaisingh had set up an observatory for calculation of time. The canvas of Ujjayini, a centre of time calculation, had always been large.
With the importance of the city in calculation of time ‘the Kala’, it seems that time and God have become one in the form of Mahakaeshwar.
‘Kalchakra pravartakon Mahakalaha pratayanaha’
Lord Mahakaleshwar has been considered as the founder of time calculation. Lord Krishna has been quoted in Shrimadbhagwadgeeta, ‘Ahamedbakshayaha kalo dhataham vishwatomukhaha’. Due to its unique geographical situation, Ujjain has also been called as Nabhipradesh or Manipur Chakra.
‘Agyachakram Smrita Kashi Ya Bala Shrutimurdhani
Swadhishthanam Smrita KanchiManipuram Avantika’
As per the geographical calculations, the ancient scholars considered Ujjain at zero degree longitude. The line of cancer also passes from here. Accordingly, the lines of cancer and meridian intersect here.
Legend also has it that Lord Mahakaleshwar’s idol is situated at the intersection point and it is in the center of the earth.
Due to these unique geographical features, Ujjain has been considered as an important city for time calculation and creation of almanac.
The Surya Siddhanta book of astrology has the mention of meridian line.
Rohitakamvanti Cha Yatha Sannihitam Saraha’
Rohtak, Avanti and Kurukshetra are the places that fall on this line. Accordingly, meridian line passes through Lanka, Sumeru, Ujjayini and other cities. The authors of Chitra Drishya Paksha and Raiwat paksha, Ketkar and Bal Gangadhar Tilak respectively had accepted the centrality of Ujjayini.
Scholar Varahmihira was born in village Kaytha of Ujjain district in Shak 427. He was the only scholar who had authored several books on all the aspects of astrology. Pancha-siddhantika, brihat samhita, Brihat Jataka, Brihat Vivaha Patal, Yatra and Laghu Jatakam are some of his books.
The traditions of time calculation and astrology have been attached to each other.
The thorough study of time calculation from the heart of this city is not possible from any other part of the world because as Lingapuran put it the life had originated here. According to ancinent mathematician Bhaskaracharya:
‘Yellakojjayini Purapari Kurukshetradi Deshansprishyat Sutram
Sumerugatam Budhernigadata Samadhyarekha Bhawaha’
As per the Indian tradition, Sun is situated exactly above Ujjain from March 21 when longer days begin. Ujjain has the privilege of being situated right below the Sun.
In Varah Puran, Ujjain city has been described as Nabhidesh (Manipur Chakra) of the body and Lord Mahakaleshwar has been described as its God. The city of Lord Mahakal is the nucleus of the world.
This had been the oldest centre of education in India. Protection of Indian cultural values, their argumentation and their preservation was also accomplished here. Volumes have been written in the praise of Ujjain during all the ages included Satyug, Treta, Dwapar and Kalyug.
The accurate calculation of time and wisdom could be achieved here. The secret behind the consecration of Lord Mahakal and centre of time calculation lies in the unique situation of the city. Ancient scholars said that the planet mars originated from here that is a big mass of earth got separated from here and took shape into a new planet, the mars. The historic Navgraha temple and observatory indicate at its unique geographical situation. Comprehensive research, experiments and surveys in this city could reveal many untouched aspects of the Universe. The answers to many questions regarding beginning and the end of universe could also be found here.